The language I chose to present is Ido. It is a new language for me and I never see it before. The reason I chose this language is that when I looked through A-Z index, it is the only language that I can read. Although I had a wrong pronunciation at first, I found it is an interesting language.

Unlike other languages developed from many years ago, Ido is an international auxiliary language. And also, it is a simplify version of Esperanto. In fact, “ido” in Esperanto means “offspring”. In addition, they are both international auxiliary language. Recently, with unequal development of culture, economy and political, some languages are very popular among worlds which threaten other languages. Therefore, some people came up with the idea that why not created an additional language rather than replace native language. With this idea, Esperanto created and 20 years later Ido created in 1907. However, it declined in popularity in 1914 of one of its most influential proponents, Louis Couturat died.

Ido is related to Esperanto also other languages. The main reforms in Ido are in orthography – no diacritics are used. Also, it reformed in gender-neutral nouns with optional endings to indicate gender, and a gender-neutral third person pronoun. Ido eliminated the need for adjectives to ‘agree’ with the nouns they qualify and eliminated some difficult consonant clusters, such as ksc and kz. Ido uses the same 26 letters as the English (Latin) alphabet with no diacritics. It draws its vocabulary from French, Italian, Spanish, English, German, and Russian, and is largely intelligible to those who have studied Esperanto.

I found Ido was created by Europeans, borrowed words from Europe, and speak most in Europe. How can Jared Diamond’s theory explains this? In my opinion, Europe countries share same latitude with Fertile Crescent, so they have advantages in development from many years ago. Now they have higher development in economy and political. Therefore, they want to expand their power. And an international auxiliary is helpful for them to trade and communication. As a result, European created it and want to expand the use of Ido.



Leap is a well-known article written by Brian Doyle, an American scholar, in 2001. The article describes the scene of 911, a grieved accident, which shocked the whole world. The author calls on the peace and compliments the love between strangers in this article.

It reflects the real scene around World Trade Center on eleventh of September in 2001. Many people jumped out the building hand by hand though they are strangers. Passers-by saw a lot of fire birds or fireballs. They guessed what they are. Later, they realized they are people on fire. People gave up counting the number of falling people because they can’t believe so many people died at that moment. Besides, several pedestrians and a fireman were killed by the falling body from sky. Then, he simply described the funeral but with deep sorrow. He quoted John Apostle’s sentence: “The day of the Lord will come as a thief in the night, in which the heavens shall pass away with a great noise, and the elements shall melt with a fervent heat, the earth also and the works that are therein shall be burned up.”(The Holy Bible, New Living Translation, 2 Peter 3:10) The speaker, John the Apostle, is one of the 12 Apostles of Jesus. This sentence expresses his sorrow and bless, which is so similar to the authors mood. I pick this sentence because this also states author’s sorry for those innocent people.

      Brian Doyle didn’t criticize the terrorists directly. However, we all know his indignation about violence. When I read the part recording that a kindergarten boy told the teacher he saw birds on flame, I was very afraid. What if he knew they are all real people suffering pains? Would he sleep well or might he have a nightmare? It is a truth that shouldn’t born by kindergarten children. In my mind, children should live in a peaceful and clean environment. Everyone is very kind to them, teach them and care them. They don’t connect to the violence. It should like this.

Meanwhile, the author showed us the love between people. A couple jumped out from window hand by hand even they are strangers. They chose to face the nightmare together and gave each other courage. It makes us believe that in this world love always defeats violence. Brain claims that we shouldn’t fear of love. In my opinion, we would better be a person full of love. For example, when we meet with something uncomfortable, we can handle them with our love but not violence.

I also want to express my attitude to terrorist organization. I have a mixed felling about it. On the one hand, I hate them very much, since they kill innocent people without hesitation. They create panic around the world, worrying almost everyone. On the other hand, however, I would reply that they are also very pathetic. Would a happy man do such a crazy thing? The answer is obviously NO. They must have gone through some terrible things, which push them to kill people. If we could find they are abnormal earlier, maybe we can save a lot of lives. After all, they lose their lives at the same time. What a sad story!

After reading this non-fiction, I determined to be a good man. Of course, I cannot do a big deed. However, I can do my best. Maybe, next time when I see someone who is unhappy, I can come up and ask whether he or she is sad. What is more, I will be kind to everyone. I will try to help others as much as I can. It is not a big deal; nonetheless, I believe it can change the world. There is a saying in china which is very popular. It says: “if everyone can donate his love even a little, the world will be more beautiful.”

E-book or Paper Book?

E-books and paper books have fight with each other several years. Some people confirm that E-books are better, because they are cheap, convenient and accessible. If you asked me my opinion, actually, I prefer to printed books.

Although others think E-books are cheaper, I think only paper books are collectible. Paper books have more beautiful physical looking. Like what the author Josh Catone(2013) wrote in the article:

“That’s not to say that electronic books can’t be beautiful — as a medium, e-books are still new and designers have yet to fully realize their potential. But for paper books, we’re already there. As Craig Mod points out in his essay “Hacking the Cover,” the book cover evolved as a marketing tool. It had to grab your attention from its place on the shelf. For that reason, the best designed covers were often beautiful art pieces. Not so in the digital world.”

I totally agree with him. Because E-books are new mediums, people pay more attention on their practical applicability this stage. Meanwhile, electronic books store on the internet. It is easily to ignore their physical beauty. Also, it seems useless to add their external beauty. Besides, we can’t touch E-books, which declare the existence of books. Therefore, E-books are cheaper, but it is lack of value.

Some people think E-books are very convenient. Although I have to admit they are very easy to carry, they are also very easy to lose. The author Patrick Allan(2014) said:

“ If you’re going to the pool or the beach and want to bring a book, it’s a lot easier to bring a physical book, since you can leave it alone (to go swimming or whatever) without worrying about it getting stolen. Can’t do that with a $100 Kindle. You can also leave it in your car, in your backpack at school, etc.”

It means you do can read books through your smart phone, ipad, kindle and so on; however, they are all expensive. You should always pay attention to them in case they will be stolen or you will forget them. You won’t worry about paper books, because they are cheaper and common. You can leave them alone and nobody wants to steal them. They are safer.

Besides, E-books are only convenient to carry; they are not easy to share. Most of people use to underline the sentence or circle some words on the paper books. Nevertheless, people would not like to do some marks on the E-books. What is more, when you share your idea by E-books, it is not clear. You can easily be confused what part I want to share.

All in all, I believe paper books will win in this battle.


The mission is a fiction movie describing the establishment of mission in South American. In this movie, Christian tried to “civilize” them while Native people also redeemed them.

In the beginning of the movie, Mendoza killed many innocent native people but felt no shame. After he killed his half-brother he realized how guilty he is. He sat in a small prison alone and didn’t want to talk to anybody for half year. Luckily, he met his first redeemer, Father Gabriel. He persuaded him to confess his guilty and he cheered Mendoza up.

On their way to the area above fall, Mendoza carried a heavy parcel all his way. He didn’t give up at any time even he was hurt by this big parcel. This parcel represented his guilty to his brother also the native people he killed. At this time, Mendoza was his own redeemer. He was trying to release his sin himself.

After he arrived with his great effort, he kneeled on the ground. When king rushed to him with a shape knife, he didn’t move. Even the knife glued to his neck, he didn’t revolt in order to release his guilty. Luckily, the king became his third redeemer. The king regretted him and considered Mendoza as his friend. Native people’s forgiveness saved Mendoza. Then, Mendoza helped native people to build their home. During this time, he finished his redemption.

In this movie, father Gabriel represents a guider who gives you a correct direction while native people represent the people you hurt before. And the most redeemer is you yourself. Only you can redeemer yourself. This is the idea I Believe. In our daily life, although a guider is very important, the most important role is still you yourself. If Mendoza had given up in half way, he couldn’t finish his redemption. Let alone the forgiveness from native people.

Why did Pizarro capture Atahuallpa?

Answering the question “Why did Pizarro capture Atahuallpa?” , author mentioned several key words: steel, fire, stone, infantry, cavalry, surprise and panic. Author concluded them the military disparity.

Spaniards had steel swords which were longest, strongest and sharpest while Incas were still using stone bronze or wood. Obviously, steel swords were better at killing people. Also, author added that Spaniards had steel helmets to protect them. What is more, author pointed that horses played an important role. Horses could provide a large horizon, a faster velocity and a stronger deterrent force because Incas never saw horses before. Although Incas hadn’t seen firearms before neither, guns played only a minor role. Because guns at that time were hard to load and fire, gun’s affection was decrease. Anyway, this was enough to make the fur fly among Incas.

In my opinion, the reasons author explained in this excerpt are surface reasons, the root cause is geography. Spaniards are nearer to Fertile Crescent than Incas which means they have more opportunity to gain advanced technology. They learned to write and print, so they spread information faster than Incas. And far more important, Spaniards share same latitude with Fertile Crescent, which means they have same climate, vegetation and animals. Vegetation and animals provided them food, drink, cloth, muscle power and disease immunity. After people didn’t feel hungry and clod, they paid more attention on technology development which explains why Spaniards had better weapons.

Busy Weekend

This weekend I was very busy because of tutor and TEM-4. What is more, the changeable weather caused me a lot of trouble.

I am tutoring a girl who is fifth grade this semester. She lives in downtown, and I come to her house every weekend. At the first, I thought it was an easy task. After all, she is a fifth grade student but I am a college student. However I changed my mind after first tutor. I found our thought was totally different from that age girl. For example, some math questions in our mind are very easy and simple but they are very difficult for the girl. Therefore, I pay more attention on our different level of understanding. Also, I try to make good friend with her. This weekend, as usual, I came to her house with full preparation. We discussed about fraction and an English article called “survive”. It was afternoon with good sunshine. However, no sooner I had come out of her house than the heavy rain fell. What was worse, I didn’t take my umbrella. Luckily, the girl’s family was so nice that they gave me an umbrella.

Another busyness was preparing TEM-4, an English test for English major in Chinese. Because our university doesn’t have any course related to this exam, I have to learn it myself. I spent a lot of time these days. Dictation, reading, writing questions focus on grammar and vocabulary. Through this exam I realized my vocabulary is still very small. Hope I can get good grade this weekend.

Recommend A TV Variety Show

u=3006921700,3821329765&fm=21&gp=0          These days, I am interested in a South Korean cooking-variety show called Please Take Care of My Refrigerator (also known as Take Care of My Refrigerator). In Korean, it is 냉장고를 부탁해. This TV variety show started in November 17th 2014 and lasted around 85 minutes each time.

I have three main reasons to recommend TV variety show.

Firstly, the design of this show is very special. Unlike other cooking show is boring and inflexible, this show is funny and exciting. In normal cooking shows, compere will introduce the ingredients and the process of chef cooking. However, this show is different. They invite two guests each time to bring their refrigerator; then two chefs who are appointed randomly should use the ingredients in the guest’s refrigerator to cook within 15 minutes. Finally, the guest will choose the winner. Isn’t it special?

Secondly, the comperes and chefs of this show are very humorous. For example, one of the chefs called Choi Hyun-seok is very popular and he has a nick name “swank chef”. When people’s attention attracted by the other chef, he will use exaggerated movements to gain people’s attention back, which always makes me laugh. Also the comperes like jokes very much. Once, the guest was a single actor with affairs. The comperes asked whether there is lady live in his house. The actor denied but others still didn’t trust.  One of comperes saw his refrigerator, and said: “maybe when we open the refrigerator, there is a lady live in there.” Then he stood before refrigerator knocking the door of refrigerator asking: “anybody?” all people laughed and the guest finally out of embarrassment.

Lastly, all chefs in this show have wonderful cooking skills. I learned a lot from this cooking show.

YALI’s Question

YALI’S QUESTION is an article explains the reason that the author what to write this book. First of all, the author briefly introduces how world developed form last ice age. He said some areas began literate industrial societies with metal tools, others began nonliterate farming society and still others retain stone tools. Thus the author wants to find why they are uncertain and controversial.

On his way finding answers, he met a man named Yali in New Guinea. Yali was charming and energetic. Although he didn’t have a high education, he has a lot of probing questions. Their conversation started from New Guinea birds to differences between whites and local people. However, the author couldn’t answer the last question which was difficult and complex. Also, the author decided to write this bokk to answer his question.

To be honest, I am also curious about this question. What makes western countries much more advanced than East? Looking around us, we can see many advanced goods are imported from Europe or American such as camera, computer, TV, especially popular iphone. People seem more likely to use imports and it is almost right that imports are more advanced.

Although china has high GDP, it doesn’t have many famous also popular brands. I really wonder what caused it also how should we deal with it. Hope one day China can produce advanced products and Chinese are pride of using them.

Africa and Antarctica

Africa and Antarctica are two region with huge differences.

Firstly, they have different axis. Africa is predominantly north to south while Antarctica is east to west. In addition they have opposite climate. Africa generally tropical with wet summer and dry winter; however, Antarctica suffer low temperatures vary with latitude, elevation, and distance from the ocean. Because of the terrible climate there only a few vegetation such as predominant plant, mosses and liverworts but there are a lot of rainforest, bush and savannah in Africa. Also, Africa has biggest range of wildlife on the planet including elephant, buffalo, lion, leopard, rhinoceros, giraffe, big cats, zebra, gorillas and chimpanzees. Nevertheless, there are only a few animals live in Antarctica such as whales, seals, birds like penguins.

There are also different in culture. Africa has more than half the world’s poorest countries while Antarctica only be exported a little.

summary responce

Recently we learned an article about how culture influences cyberspace communication. The author think website is a good tool for trade also political. He uses example of internet cafés and communist of china to illustrate his ideas. He also points out at the introduction part that he would talk about the differences between china and American but I haven’t read yet.

When he mentioned china he said Confucian concept of naming can help us understand the Chinese web design. He briefly introduces Confucian’s major purpose is to justify and theorize the famer-based social system of Confucian’s time. Then he specifically explains the function of naming that it arranges affairs according to actuality. After that he gives an example of Beijing Olympic Organization Committee Web site. He points out that if their names are correct, the users will be able to intuit what he or she needs to do.

I didn’t realize it until I read this article. Looking back the websites in china I have seen, there are only few instructions but a lot of naming. Usually, in the website there is a lot of naming. It didn’t say whether you should click or do whatever other things; however, we intuitively know the next step that we should do. To be honest, this can also cause trouble. For example, if you don’t have this kind of background, you may feel confused about what you should do. Also, it is hard for foreigners who are lack of Chinese culture to surf on the Chinese websites.